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# Content
1 =head1 LIBECB - e-C-Builtins
2
3 =head2 ABOUT LIBECB
4
5 Libecb is currently a simple header file that doesn't require any
6 configuration to use or include in your project.
7
8 It's part of the e-suite of libraries, other members of which include
9 libev and libeio.
10
11 Its homepage can be found here:
12
13 http://software.schmorp.de/pkg/libecb
14
15 It mainly provides a number of wrappers around GCC built-ins, together
16 with replacement functions for other compilers. In addition to this,
17 it provides a number of other lowlevel C utilities, such as endianness
18 detection, byte swapping or bit rotations.
19
20 Or in other words, things that should be built into any standard C system,
21 but aren't, implemented as efficient as possible with GCC, and still
22 correct with other compilers.
23
24 More might come.
25
26 =head2 ABOUT THE HEADER
27
28 At the moment, all you have to do is copy F<ecb.h> somewhere where your
29 compiler can find it and include it:
30
31 #include <ecb.h>
32
33 The header should work fine for both C and C++ compilation, and gives you
34 all of F<inttypes.h> in addition to the ECB symbols.
35
36 There are currently no object files to link to - future versions might
37 come with an (optional) object code library to link against, to reduce
38 code size or gain access to additional features.
39
40 It also currently includes everything from F<inttypes.h>.
41
42 =head2 ABOUT THIS MANUAL / CONVENTIONS
43
44 This manual mainly describes each (public) function available after
45 including the F<ecb.h> header. The header might define other symbols than
46 these, but these are not part of the public API, and not supported in any
47 way.
48
49 When the manual mentions a "function" then this could be defined either as
50 as inline function, a macro, or an external symbol.
51
52 When functions use a concrete standard type, such as C<int> or
53 C<uint32_t>, then the corresponding function works only with that type. If
54 only a generic name is used (C<expr>, C<cond>, C<value> and so on), then
55 the corresponding function relies on C to implement the correct types, and
56 is usually implemented as a macro. Specifically, a "bool" in this manual
57 refers to any kind of boolean value, not a specific type.
58
59 =head2 TYPES / TYPE SUPPORT
60
61 ecb.h makes sure that the following types are defined (in the expected way):
62
63 int8_t uint8_t int16_t uint16_t
64 int32_t uint32_t int64_t uint64_t
65 intptr_t uintptr_t
66
67 The macro C<ECB_PTRSIZE> is defined to the size of a pointer on this
68 platform (currently C<4> or C<8>) and can be used in preprocessor
69 expressions.
70
71 For C<ptrdiff_t> and C<size_t> use C<stddef.h>.
72
73 =head2 LANGUAGE/ENVIRONMENT/COMPILER VERSIONS
74
75 All the following symbols expand to an expression that can be tested in
76 preprocessor instructions as well as treated as a boolean (use C<!!> to
77 ensure it's either C<0> or C<1> if you need that).
78
79 =over 4
80
81 =item ECB_C
82
83 True if the implementation defines the C<__STDC__> macro to a true value,
84 while not claiming to be C++.
85
86 =item ECB_C99
87
88 True if the implementation claims to be compliant to C99 (ISO/IEC
89 9899:1999) or any later version, while not claiming to be C++.
90
91 Note that later versions (ECB_C11) remove core features again (for
92 example, variable length arrays).
93
94 =item ECB_C11
95
96 True if the implementation claims to be compliant to C11 (ISO/IEC
97 9899:2011) or any later version, while not claiming to be C++.
98
99 =item ECB_CPP
100
101 True if the implementation defines the C<__cplusplus__> macro to a true
102 value, which is typically true for C++ compilers.
103
104 =item ECB_CPP11
105
106 True if the implementation claims to be compliant to ISO/IEC 14882:2011
107 (C++11) or any later version.
108
109 =item ECB_GCC_VERSION (major, minor)
110
111 Expands to a true value (suitable for testing in by the preprocessor)
112 if the compiler used is GNU C and the version is the given version, or
113 higher.
114
115 This macro tries to return false on compilers that claim to be GCC
116 compatible but aren't.
117
118 =item ECB_EXTERN_C
119
120 Expands to C<extern "C"> in C++, and a simple C<extern> in C.
121
122 This can be used to declare a single external C function:
123
124 ECB_EXTERN_C int printf (const char *format, ...);
125
126 =item ECB_EXTERN_C_BEG / ECB_EXTERN_C_END
127
128 These two macros can be used to wrap multiple C<extern "C"> definitions -
129 they expand to nothing in C.
130
131 They are most useful in header files:
132
133 ECB_EXTERN_C_BEG
134
135 int mycfun1 (int x);
136 int mycfun2 (int x);
137
138 ECB_EXTERN_C_END
139
140 =item ECB_STDFP
141
142 If this evaluates to a true value (suitable for testing in by the
143 preprocessor), then C<float> and C<double> use IEEE 754 single/binary32
144 and double/binary64 representations internally I<and> the endianness of
145 both types match the endianness of C<uint32_t> and C<uint64_t>.
146
147 This means you can just copy the bits of a C<float> (or C<double>) to an
148 C<uint32_t> (or C<uint64_t>) and get the raw IEEE 754 bit representation
149 without having to think about format or endianness.
150
151 This is true for basically all modern platforms, although F<ecb.h> might
152 not be able to deduce this correctly everywhere and might err on the safe
153 side.
154
155 =item ECB_AMD64, ECB_AMD64_X32
156
157 These two macros are defined to C<1> on the x86_64/amd64 ABI and the X32
158 ABI, respectively, and undefined elsewhere.
159
160 The designers of the new X32 ABI for some inexplicable reason decided to
161 make it look exactly like amd64, even though it's completely incompatible
162 to that ABI, breaking about every piece of software that assumed that
163 C<__x86_64> stands for, well, the x86-64 ABI, making these macros
164 necessary.
165
166 =back
167
168 =head2 MACRO TRICKERY
169
170 =over 4
171
172 =item ECB_CONCAT (a, b)
173
174 Expands any macros in C<a> and C<b>, then concatenates the result to form
175 a single token. This is mainly useful to form identifiers from components,
176 e.g.:
177
178 #define S1 str
179 #define S2 cpy
180
181 ECB_CONCAT (S1, S2)(dst, src); // == strcpy (dst, src);
182
183 =item ECB_STRINGIFY (arg)
184
185 Expands any macros in C<arg> and returns the stringified version of
186 it. This is mainly useful to get the contents of a macro in string form,
187 e.g.:
188
189 #define SQL_LIMIT 100
190 sql_exec ("select * from table limit " ECB_STRINGIFY (SQL_LIMIT));
191
192 =item ECB_STRINGIFY_EXPR (expr)
193
194 Like C<ECB_STRINGIFY>, but additionally evaluates C<expr> to make sure it
195 is a valid expression. This is useful to catch typos or cases where the
196 macro isn't available:
197
198 #include <errno.h>
199
200 ECB_STRINGIFY (EDOM); // "33" (on my system at least)
201 ECB_STRINGIFY_EXPR (EDOM); // "33"
202
203 // now imagine we had a typo:
204
205 ECB_STRINGIFY (EDAM); // "EDAM"
206 ECB_STRINGIFY_EXPR (EDAM); // error: EDAM undefined
207
208 =back
209
210 =head2 ATTRIBUTES
211
212 A major part of libecb deals with additional attributes that can be
213 assigned to functions, variables and sometimes even types - much like
214 C<const> or C<volatile> in C. They are implemented using either GCC
215 attributes or other compiler/language specific features. Attributes
216 declarations must be put before the whole declaration:
217
218 ecb_const int mysqrt (int a);
219 ecb_unused int i;
220
221 =over 4
222
223 =item ecb_unused
224
225 Marks a function or a variable as "unused", which simply suppresses a
226 warning by GCC when it detects it as unused. This is useful when you e.g.
227 declare a variable but do not always use it:
228
229 {
230 ecb_unused int var;
231
232 #ifdef SOMECONDITION
233 var = ...;
234 return var;
235 #else
236 return 0;
237 #endif
238 }
239
240 =item ecb_deprecated
241
242 Similar to C<ecb_unused>, but marks a function, variable or type as
243 deprecated. This makes some compilers warn when the type is used.
244
245 =item ecb_deprecated_message (message)
246
247 Same as C<ecb_deprecated>, but if possible, supply a diagnostic that is
248 used instead of a generic depreciation message when the object is being
249 used.
250
251 =item ecb_inline
252
253 Expands either to C<static inline> or to just C<static>, if inline
254 isn't supported. It should be used to declare functions that should be
255 inlined, for code size or speed reasons.
256
257 Example: inline this function, it surely will reduce codesize.
258
259 ecb_inline int
260 negmul (int a, int b)
261 {
262 return - (a * b);
263 }
264
265 =item ecb_noinline
266
267 Prevent a function from being inlined - it might be optimised away, but
268 not inlined into other functions. This is useful if you know your function
269 is rarely called and large enough for inlining not to be helpful.
270
271 =item ecb_noreturn
272
273 Marks a function as "not returning, ever". Some typical functions that
274 don't return are C<exit> or C<abort> (which really works hard to not
275 return), and now you can make your own:
276
277 ecb_noreturn void
278 my_abort (const char *errline)
279 {
280 puts (errline);
281 abort ();
282 }
283
284 In this case, the compiler would probably be smart enough to deduce it on
285 its own, so this is mainly useful for declarations.
286
287 =item ecb_restrict
288
289 Expands to the C<restrict> keyword or equivalent on compilers that support
290 them, and to nothing on others. Must be specified on a pointer type or
291 an array index to indicate that the memory doesn't alias with any other
292 restricted pointer in the same scope.
293
294 Example: multiply a vector, and allow the compiler to parallelise the
295 loop, because it knows it doesn't overwrite input values.
296
297 void
298 multiply (ecb_restrict float *src,
299 ecb_restrict float *dst,
300 int len, float factor)
301 {
302 int i;
303
304 for (i = 0; i < len; ++i)
305 dst [i] = src [i] * factor;
306 }
307
308 =item ecb_const
309
310 Declares that the function only depends on the values of its arguments,
311 much like a mathematical function. It specifically does not read or write
312 any memory any arguments might point to, global variables, or call any
313 non-const functions. It also must not have any side effects.
314
315 Such a function can be optimised much more aggressively by the compiler -
316 for example, multiple calls with the same arguments can be optimised into
317 a single call, which wouldn't be possible if the compiler would have to
318 expect any side effects.
319
320 It is best suited for functions in the sense of mathematical functions,
321 such as a function returning the square root of its input argument.
322
323 Not suited would be a function that calculates the hash of some memory
324 area you pass in, prints some messages or looks at a global variable to
325 decide on rounding.
326
327 See C<ecb_pure> for a slightly less restrictive class of functions.
328
329 =item ecb_pure
330
331 Similar to C<ecb_const>, declares a function that has no side
332 effects. Unlike C<ecb_const>, the function is allowed to examine global
333 variables and any other memory areas (such as the ones passed to it via
334 pointers).
335
336 While these functions cannot be optimised as aggressively as C<ecb_const>
337 functions, they can still be optimised away in many occasions, and the
338 compiler has more freedom in moving calls to them around.
339
340 Typical examples for such functions would be C<strlen> or C<memcmp>. A
341 function that calculates the MD5 sum of some input and updates some MD5
342 state passed as argument would I<NOT> be pure, however, as it would modify
343 some memory area that is not the return value.
344
345 =item ecb_hot
346
347 This declares a function as "hot" with regards to the cache - the function
348 is used so often, that it is very beneficial to keep it in the cache if
349 possible.
350
351 The compiler reacts by trying to place hot functions near to each other in
352 memory.
353
354 Whether a function is hot or not often depends on the whole program,
355 and less on the function itself. C<ecb_cold> is likely more useful in
356 practise.
357
358 =item ecb_cold
359
360 The opposite of C<ecb_hot> - declares a function as "cold" with regards to
361 the cache, or in other words, this function is not called often, or not at
362 speed-critical times, and keeping it in the cache might be a waste of said
363 cache.
364
365 In addition to placing cold functions together (or at least away from hot
366 functions), this knowledge can be used in other ways, for example, the
367 function will be optimised for size, as opposed to speed, and codepaths
368 leading to calls to those functions can automatically be marked as if
369 C<ecb_expect_false> had been used to reach them.
370
371 Good examples for such functions would be error reporting functions, or
372 functions only called in exceptional or rare cases.
373
374 =item ecb_artificial
375
376 Declares the function as "artificial", in this case meaning that this
377 function is not really meant to be a function, but more like an accessor
378 - many methods in C++ classes are mere accessor functions, and having a
379 crash reported in such a method, or single-stepping through them, is not
380 usually so helpful, especially when it's inlined to just a few instructions.
381
382 Marking them as artificial will instruct the debugger about just this,
383 leading to happier debugging and thus happier lives.
384
385 Example: in some kind of smart-pointer class, mark the pointer accessor as
386 artificial, so that the whole class acts more like a pointer and less like
387 some C++ abstraction monster.
388
389 template<typename T>
390 struct my_smart_ptr
391 {
392 T *value;
393
394 ecb_artificial
395 operator T *()
396 {
397 return value;
398 }
399 };
400
401 =back
402
403 =head2 OPTIMISATION HINTS
404
405 =over 4
406
407 =item bool ecb_is_constant (expr)
408
409 Returns true iff the expression can be deduced to be a compile-time
410 constant, and false otherwise.
411
412 For example, when you have a C<rndm16> function that returns a 16 bit
413 random number, and you have a function that maps this to a range from
414 0..n-1, then you could use this inline function in a header file:
415
416 ecb_inline uint32_t
417 rndm (uint32_t n)
418 {
419 return (n * (uint32_t)rndm16 ()) >> 16;
420 }
421
422 However, for powers of two, you could use a normal mask, but that is only
423 worth it if, at compile time, you can detect this case. This is the case
424 when the passed number is a constant and also a power of two (C<n & (n -
425 1) == 0>):
426
427 ecb_inline uint32_t
428 rndm (uint32_t n)
429 {
430 return is_constant (n) && !(n & (n - 1))
431 ? rndm16 () & (num - 1)
432 : (n * (uint32_t)rndm16 ()) >> 16;
433 }
434
435 =item ecb_expect (expr, value)
436
437 Evaluates C<expr> and returns it. In addition, it tells the compiler that
438 the C<expr> evaluates to C<value> a lot, which can be used for static
439 branch optimisations.
440
441 Usually, you want to use the more intuitive C<ecb_expect_true> and
442 C<ecb_expect_false> functions instead.
443
444 =item bool ecb_expect_true (cond)
445
446 =item bool ecb_expect_false (cond)
447
448 These two functions expect a expression that is true or false and return
449 C<1> or C<0>, respectively, so when used in the condition of an C<if> or
450 other conditional statement, it will not change the program:
451
452 /* these two do the same thing */
453 if (some_condition) ...;
454 if (ecb_expect_true (some_condition)) ...;
455
456 However, by using C<ecb_expect_true>, you tell the compiler that the
457 condition is likely to be true (and for C<ecb_expect_false>, that it is
458 unlikely to be true).
459
460 For example, when you check for a null pointer and expect this to be a
461 rare, exceptional, case, then use C<ecb_expect_false>:
462
463 void my_free (void *ptr)
464 {
465 if (ecb_expect_false (ptr == 0))
466 return;
467 }
468
469 Consequent use of these functions to mark away exceptional cases or to
470 tell the compiler what the hot path through a function is can increase
471 performance considerably.
472
473 You might know these functions under the name C<likely> and C<unlikely>
474 - while these are common aliases, we find that the expect name is easier
475 to understand when quickly skimming code. If you wish, you can use
476 C<ecb_likely> instead of C<ecb_expect_true> and C<ecb_unlikely> instead of
477 C<ecb_expect_false> - these are simply aliases.
478
479 A very good example is in a function that reserves more space for some
480 memory block (for example, inside an implementation of a string stream) -
481 each time something is added, you have to check for a buffer overrun, but
482 you expect that most checks will turn out to be false:
483
484 /* make sure we have "size" extra room in our buffer */
485 ecb_inline void
486 reserve (int size)
487 {
488 if (ecb_expect_false (current + size > end))
489 real_reserve_method (size); /* presumably noinline */
490 }
491
492 =item ecb_assume (cond)
493
494 Try to tell the compiler that some condition is true, even if it's not
495 obvious. This is not a function, but a statement: it cannot be used in
496 another expression.
497
498 This can be used to teach the compiler about invariants or other
499 conditions that might improve code generation, but which are impossible to
500 deduce form the code itself.
501
502 For example, the example reservation function from the C<ecb_expect_false>
503 description could be written thus (only C<ecb_assume> was added):
504
505 ecb_inline void
506 reserve (int size)
507 {
508 if (ecb_expect_false (current + size > end))
509 real_reserve_method (size); /* presumably noinline */
510
511 ecb_assume (current + size <= end);
512 }
513
514 If you then call this function twice, like this:
515
516 reserve (10);
517 reserve (1);
518
519 Then the compiler I<might> be able to optimise out the second call
520 completely, as it knows that C<< current + 1 > end >> is false and the
521 call will never be executed.
522
523 =item ecb_unreachable ()
524
525 This function does nothing itself, except tell the compiler that it will
526 never be executed. Apart from suppressing a warning in some cases, this
527 function can be used to implement C<ecb_assume> or similar functionality.
528
529 =item ecb_prefetch (addr, rw, locality)
530
531 Tells the compiler to try to prefetch memory at the given C<addr>ess
532 for either reading (C<rw> = 0) or writing (C<rw> = 1). A C<locality> of
533 C<0> means that there will only be one access later, C<3> means that
534 the data will likely be accessed very often, and values in between mean
535 something... in between. The memory pointed to by the address does not
536 need to be accessible (it could be a null pointer for example), but C<rw>
537 and C<locality> must be compile-time constants.
538
539 This is a statement, not a function: you cannot use it as part of an
540 expression.
541
542 An obvious way to use this is to prefetch some data far away, in a big
543 array you loop over. This prefetches memory some 128 array elements later,
544 in the hope that it will be ready when the CPU arrives at that location.
545
546 int sum = 0;
547
548 for (i = 0; i < N; ++i)
549 {
550 sum += arr [i]
551 ecb_prefetch (arr + i + 128, 0, 0);
552 }
553
554 It's hard to predict how far to prefetch, and most CPUs that can prefetch
555 are often good enough to predict this kind of behaviour themselves. It
556 gets more interesting with linked lists, especially when you do some fair
557 processing on each list element:
558
559 for (node *n = start; n; n = n->next)
560 {
561 ecb_prefetch (n->next, 0, 0);
562 ... do medium amount of work with *n
563 }
564
565 After processing the node, (part of) the next node might already be in
566 cache.
567
568 =back
569
570 =head2 BIT FIDDLING / BIT WIZARDRY
571
572 =over 4
573
574 =item bool ecb_big_endian ()
575
576 =item bool ecb_little_endian ()
577
578 These two functions return true if the byte order is big endian
579 (most-significant byte first) or little endian (least-significant byte
580 first) respectively.
581
582 On systems that are neither, their return values are unspecified.
583
584 =item int ecb_ctz32 (uint32_t x)
585
586 =item int ecb_ctz64 (uint64_t x)
587
588 Returns the index of the least significant bit set in C<x> (or
589 equivalently the number of bits set to 0 before the least significant bit
590 set), starting from 0. If C<x> is 0 the result is undefined.
591
592 For smaller types than C<uint32_t> you can safely use C<ecb_ctz32>.
593
594 For example:
595
596 ecb_ctz32 (3) = 0
597 ecb_ctz32 (6) = 1
598
599 =item bool ecb_is_pot32 (uint32_t x)
600
601 =item bool ecb_is_pot64 (uint32_t x)
602
603 Return true iff C<x> is a power of two or C<x == 0>.
604
605 For smaller types then C<uint32_t> you can safely use C<ecb_is_pot32>.
606
607 =item int ecb_ld32 (uint32_t x)
608
609 =item int ecb_ld64 (uint64_t x)
610
611 Returns the index of the most significant bit set in C<x>, or the number
612 of digits the number requires in binary (so that C<< 2**ld <= x <
613 2**(ld+1) >>). If C<x> is 0 the result is undefined. A common use case is
614 to compute the integer binary logarithm, i.e. C<floor (log2 (n))>, for
615 example to see how many bits a certain number requires to be encoded.
616
617 This function is similar to the "count leading zero bits" function, except
618 that that one returns how many zero bits are "in front" of the number (in
619 the given data type), while C<ecb_ld> returns how many bits the number
620 itself requires.
621
622 For smaller types than C<uint32_t> you can safely use C<ecb_ld32>.
623
624 =item int ecb_popcount32 (uint32_t x)
625
626 =item int ecb_popcount64 (uint64_t x)
627
628 Returns the number of bits set to 1 in C<x>.
629
630 For smaller types than C<uint32_t> you can safely use C<ecb_popcount32>.
631
632 For example:
633
634 ecb_popcount32 (7) = 3
635 ecb_popcount32 (255) = 8
636
637 =item uint8_t ecb_bitrev8 (uint8_t x)
638
639 =item uint16_t ecb_bitrev16 (uint16_t x)
640
641 =item uint32_t ecb_bitrev32 (uint32_t x)
642
643 Reverses the bits in x, i.e. the MSB becomes the LSB, MSB-1 becomes LSB+1
644 and so on.
645
646 Example:
647
648 ecb_bitrev8 (0xa7) = 0xea
649 ecb_bitrev32 (0xffcc4411) = 0x882233ff
650
651 =item uint32_t ecb_bswap16 (uint32_t x)
652
653 =item uint32_t ecb_bswap32 (uint32_t x)
654
655 =item uint64_t ecb_bswap64 (uint64_t x)
656
657 These functions return the value of the 16-bit (32-bit, 64-bit) value
658 C<x> after reversing the order of bytes (0x11223344 becomes 0x44332211 in
659 C<ecb_bswap32>).
660
661 =item uint8_t ecb_rotl8 (uint8_t x, unsigned int count)
662
663 =item uint16_t ecb_rotl16 (uint16_t x, unsigned int count)
664
665 =item uint32_t ecb_rotl32 (uint32_t x, unsigned int count)
666
667 =item uint64_t ecb_rotl64 (uint64_t x, unsigned int count)
668
669 =item uint8_t ecb_rotr8 (uint8_t x, unsigned int count)
670
671 =item uint16_t ecb_rotr16 (uint16_t x, unsigned int count)
672
673 =item uint32_t ecb_rotr32 (uint32_t x, unsigned int count)
674
675 =item uint64_t ecb_rotr64 (uint64_t x, unsigned int count)
676
677 These two families of functions return the value of C<x> after rotating
678 all the bits by C<count> positions to the right (C<ecb_rotr>) or left
679 (C<ecb_rotl>).
680
681 Current GCC versions understand these functions and usually compile them
682 to "optimal" code (e.g. a single C<rol> or a combination of C<shld> on
683 x86).
684
685 =back
686
687 =head2 FLOATING POINT FIDDLING
688
689 =over 4
690
691 =item ECB_INFINITY
692
693 Evaluates to positive infinity if supported by the platform, otherwise to
694 a truly huge number.
695
696 =item ECB_NAN
697
698 Evaluates to a quiet NAN if supported by the platform, otherwise to
699 C<ECB_INFINITY>.
700
701 =item float ecb_ldexpf (float x, int exp)
702
703 Same as C<ldexpf>, but always available.
704
705 =item uint32_t ecb_float_to_binary32 (float x) [-UECB_NO_LIBM]
706
707 =item uint64_t ecb_double_to_binary64 (double x) [-UECB_NO_LIBM]
708
709 These functions each take an argument in the native C<float> or C<double>
710 type and return the IEEE 754 bit representation of it.
711
712 The bit representation is just as IEEE 754 defines it, i.e. the sign bit
713 will be the most significant bit, followed by exponent and mantissa.
714
715 This function should work even when the native floating point format isn't
716 IEEE compliant, of course at a speed and code size penalty, and of course
717 also within reasonable limits (it tries to convert NaNs, infinities and
718 denormals, but will likely convert negative zero to positive zero).
719
720 On all modern platforms (where C<ECB_STDFP> is true), the compiler should
721 be able to optimise away this function completely.
722
723 These functions can be helpful when serialising floats to the network - you
724 can serialise the return value like a normal uint32_t/uint64_t.
725
726 Another use for these functions is to manipulate floating point values
727 directly.
728
729 Silly example: toggle the sign bit of a float.
730
731 /* On gcc-4.7 on amd64, */
732 /* this results in a single add instruction to toggle the bit, and 4 extra */
733 /* instructions to move the float value to an integer register and back. */
734
735 x = ecb_binary32_to_float (ecb_float_to_binary32 (x) ^ 0x80000000U)
736
737 =item float ecb_binary16_to_float (uint16_t x) [-UECB_NO_LIBM]
738
739 =item float ecb_binary32_to_float (uint32_t x) [-UECB_NO_LIBM]
740
741 =item double ecb_binary32_to_double (uint64_t x) [-UECB_NO_LIBM]
742
743 The reverse operation of the previous function - takes the bit
744 representation of an IEEE binary16, binary32 or binary64 number and
745 converts it to the native C<float> or C<double> format.
746
747 This function should work even when the native floating point format isn't
748 IEEE compliant, of course at a speed and code size penalty, and of course
749 also within reasonable limits (it tries to convert normals and denormals,
750 and might be lucky for infinities, and with extraordinary luck, also for
751 negative zero).
752
753 On all modern platforms (where C<ECB_STDFP> is true), the compiler should
754 be able to optimise away this function completely.
755
756 =back
757
758 =head2 ARITHMETIC
759
760 =over 4
761
762 =item x = ecb_mod (m, n)
763
764 Returns C<m> modulo C<n>, which is the same as the positive remainder
765 of the division operation between C<m> and C<n>, using floored
766 division. Unlike the C remainder operator C<%>, this function ensures that
767 the return value is always positive and that the two numbers I<m> and
768 I<m' = m + i * n> result in the same value modulo I<n> - in other words,
769 C<ecb_mod> implements the mathematical modulo operation, which is missing
770 in the language.
771
772 C<n> must be strictly positive (i.e. C<< >= 1 >>), while C<m> must be
773 negatable, that is, both C<m> and C<-m> must be representable in its
774 type (this typically excludes the minimum signed integer value, the same
775 limitation as for C</> and C<%> in C).
776
777 Current GCC versions compile this into an efficient branchless sequence on
778 almost all CPUs.
779
780 For example, when you want to rotate forward through the members of an
781 array for increasing C<m> (which might be negative), then you should use
782 C<ecb_mod>, as the C<%> operator might give either negative results, or
783 change direction for negative values:
784
785 for (m = -100; m <= 100; ++m)
786 int elem = myarray [ecb_mod (m, ecb_array_length (myarray))];
787
788 =item x = ecb_div_rd (val, div)
789
790 =item x = ecb_div_ru (val, div)
791
792 Returns C<val> divided by C<div> rounded down or up, respectively.
793 C<val> and C<div> must have integer types and C<div> must be strictly
794 positive. Note that these functions are implemented with macros in C
795 and with function templates in C++.
796
797 =back
798
799 =head2 UTILITY
800
801 =over 4
802
803 =item element_count = ecb_array_length (name)
804
805 Returns the number of elements in the array C<name>. For example:
806
807 int primes[] = { 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 };
808 int sum = 0;
809
810 for (i = 0; i < ecb_array_length (primes); i++)
811 sum += primes [i];
812
813 =back
814
815 =head2 SYMBOLS GOVERNING COMPILATION OF ECB.H ITSELF
816
817 These symbols need to be defined before including F<ecb.h> the first time.
818
819 =over 4
820
821 =item ECB_NO_THREADS
822
823 If F<ecb.h> is never used from multiple threads, then this symbol can
824 be defined, in which case memory fences (and similar constructs) are
825 completely removed, leading to more efficient code and fewer dependencies.
826
827 Setting this symbol to a true value implies C<ECB_NO_SMP>.
828
829 =item ECB_NO_SMP
830
831 The weaker version of C<ECB_NO_THREADS> - if F<ecb.h> is used from
832 multiple threads, but never concurrently (e.g. if the system the program
833 runs on has only a single CPU with a single core, no hyperthreading and so
834 on), then this symbol can be defined, leading to more efficient code and
835 fewer dependencies.
836
837 =item ECB_NO_LIBM
838
839 When defined to C<1>, do not export any functions that might introduce
840 dependencies on the math library (usually called F<-lm>) - these are
841 marked with [-UECB_NO_LIBM].
842
843 =back
844
845